Mines and Minerals Development Act, 2015

There are outstanding amendments that have not yet been applied. See the History tab for more information.

Zambia

Mines and Minerals Development Act, 2015

Act 11 of 2015

  • Published on 14 August 2015
  • Assented to on 14 August 2015
  • Commenced on 1 July 2015
  • [This is the version of this document as it was from 1 June 2016 to 31 December 2018.]
  1. [Amended by Mines and Minerals Development (Amendment) Act, 2016 (Act 14 of 2016) on 1 June 2016]
An Act to revise the law relating to the exploration for, mining and processing of, minerals; provide for safety, health and environmental protection in mining operations; provide for the establishment of the Mining Appeals Tribunal; repeal and replace the Mines and Minerals Development Act, 2008; and provide for matters connected with, or incidental to, the foregoing.ENACTED by the Parliament of Zambia

Part I – Preliminary

1. Short title and commencement

This Act may be cited as the Mines and Minerals Development Act, 2015, and shall come into operation on 1st July, 2015.

2. Interpretation

(1)In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires—"access agreement" means an agreement entered into between the holder of a mining right and an owner or occupier of land over which the mining right subsists, for the conduct of exploration, mining or other activities authorised by the mining right to be carried on upon the land;"appropriate authority" in relation to any matter, means the Minister responsible for that matter or such public officer as the Minister may authorise to give the requisite consent in that behalf;"artisanal mining" means an artisan’s mining operation undertaken by a citizen pursuant to a mining licence granted under Part III;"authorised officer" means a public officer or other person designated as such under subsection (8) of section five;"base metal" means iron, copper, nickel, aluminium, lead, zinc, tin, magnesium, cobalt, manganese, titanium, scandium, vanadium, molybdenum, chromium, tungsten, tantalum, bismuth, cadmium, zirconium, antimony, beryllium, germanium and rare earth elements, or a non-precious metal that is common or chemically active, or both common and chemically active;"bird sanctuary" has the meaning assigned to it in the Zambia Wildlife Act, 2015;[Act No. 14 of 2015]"cadastre unit" means a quadrilateral formed by the intersection of meridians and parallels and with a distance equal to six sexagesimal seconds, and that covers an average planimetric surface of three point three four zero zero hectares;" certificate of abandonment" means the certificate granted by the Director of Mining Cadastre under section seventy at the abandonment of a mining or non-mining right;"citizen" has the meaning assigned to it in the Constitution, and in relation to a partnership, means a partnership which is composed exclusively of citizens;[Cap. 1]"citizen-empowered company" means a company where twenty-five to fifty percent of its equity is owned by citizens;"citizen-influenced company" has the meaning assigned to it in the Citizens Economic Empowerment Act, 2006;[Act No. 9 of 2006]"citizen-owned company" has the meaning assigned to it in the Citizens Economic Empowerment Act, 2006;[Act No. 9 of 2006]"Commissioner-General" means the Commissioner-General appointed under the Zambia Revenue Authority Act;[Cap. 321]"Committee" means the Mining Licensing Committee established under section six;"Community Partnership Park" has the meaning assigned to it in the Zambia Wildlife Act, 2015;[Act No. 14 of 2015]"company" means a private or public company as defined in the Companies Act;[Cap. 388]"conflict mineral" means a mineral which is mined from an area of armed conflict;"co-operative" means a co-operative society established under the Co-operative Societies Act, 1998;[Act No. 20 of 1998]"day" means a calendar day;"decision letter" means a letter issued by the Zambia Environmental Management Agency stating that—(a)a proposed project is not likely to cause adverse effects on the environment; or(b)a proposed project is likely to bring about adverse effects on the environment and an authorisation, licence, permit or permission should not be issued to the applicant;"Director of Geological Survey" means the person appointed as such under paragraph (c) of subsection (1) of section five;"Director of Mines" means the person appointed as such under paragraph (a) of subsection (1) of section five;"Director of Mines Safety" means the person appointed as such under paragraph (b) of subsection (1) of section five;"Director of Mining Cadastre" means the person appointed as such under paragraph (d) of subsection (1) of section five;"Directors" means the Director of Mines, Director of Mines Safety, Director of Mining Cadastre and Director of Geological Survey;"energy mineral" means a naturally occurring substance in the earth’s crust used as a source of energy, and includes coal, uranium and any other mineral used to generate energy, but does not include petroleum;"environmental impact assessment" has the meaning assigned to it in the Environmental Management Act, 2011;[Act No. 12 of 2011]"exploration area" means the land covered by an exploration licence;"exploration licence" means an exploration licence granted under section twenty-three;"exploration" means the search for a mineral by any means and carrying out of such works, and removal of such samples, as may be necessary to test the mineral bearing qualities of any land and define the extent and determine the economic value of a mineral deposit;"force majeure" means an event which is beyond the reasonable control of a holder and which makes the exploration or mining operations under the licence impossible;"Game Management Area" has the meaning assigned to it in the Zambia Wildlife Act, 2015;[Act No. 14 of 2015]"gemstone" includes amethyst, aquamarine, beryl, corundum, diamond, emerald, garnet, ruby, sapphire, topaz, tourmaline and any other nonmetallic mineral substance used in the manufacture of jewellery;"gold pannig" means the process of liberating gold from a placer deposit by gentle agitation and gravity in a pan through a water course or body;"gold panning certificate" means a certificate for gold panning granted under section forty-two;"holder" means the person in whose name a mining right or non-mining right is registered under this Act;"industrial minerals" includes a rock or mineral other than gemstones, base metals, energy minerals or precious metals used in their natural state or after physical or chemical transformation, including barites, dolomite, feldspar, fluorspar, graphite, gypsum, ironstone when used as afluxing agent, kyanite, limestone, phyllite, magnesite, mica, nitrate, phosphate, pyrophyllite, salt, sand, clay, talc, laterite, gravel, potash, potassium minerals, granite, marble, clay, silica, diatomite, kaolin, bentonite or quartz;"large-scale exploration" means exploration over an area covering a minimum of three hundred and one cadastre units and not exceeding fifty-nine thousand eight hundred and eighty cadastre units;"large-scale mining" means mining over an area of a minimum of one hundred and twenty-one cadastre units and not exceeding seven thousand four hundred and eighty-five cadastre units;"local office" means an office of the Mining Cadastre Department of the Ministry;"mine" means any place, pit, shaft, drive, level or other opening or excavation, and any drift, gutter, lead, vein, lode, reef, saltpan or working, in or on or by means of which any operation connected with mining is carried on, together with all the works, machinery, plant, buildings, premises, erections and appliances, whether above or below the ground, that are used in connection with the operation or for the extraction, treatment or preparation of any mineral or for the purpose of dressing mineral ores;"mineral" means any substance, whether in solid, liquid or gaseous form, occurring naturally in or on the earth or under water, formed by or subjected to a geological process, or any substance occurring in tailing dams, slag dumps, waste rock dumps, residue waste rock dumps, residue stockpiles or residue deposit, but excludes—(a)water, other than water taken from the land or any water body for the extraction of any mineral from that water; and(b)petroleum;"mineral processing" means the practice of beneficiating or liberating valuable minerals from their ores which may combine a number of unit operations such as crushing, grinding, sizing, screening, classification, washing, froth floatation, gravity concentration, electrostatic separation, magnetic separation, leaching, smelting, refining, calcining and gasification or any other processes incidental thereto;"mineral processing licence" means a licence granted under Part III for processing minerals and cutting, polishing and manufacturing jewellery;"mineral processing operations" means an operation carried out under a mineral processing licence;"mineral product" means any mineral substance, in any form, extracted for commercial purposes pursuant to a mining right, or any product obtained from the mineral substance by way of mineral processing;"mineral royalty" means a payment received as consideration for the extraction of minerals;"mineral trading permit" means a mineral trading permit granted under Part III;"mining" means the extraction of material, whether solid, liquid or gaseous, from land or from beneath the surface of the earth in order to win minerals, or any operations directly or indirectly necessary or incidental to the extraction of the material;" mining area " means an area of land subject to a licence under this Act;"Mining Cadastre Office" means the central administrative office for processing applications for mining rights and mineral processing licences established pursuant to section eight;"mining licence" means a mining licence granted under section thirty-two;" mining operations " means an operation carried out under a mining right, excluding an operation carried out under an exploration licence or mineral processing licence;"mining plant" means any building, plant, machinery, equipment, tools or other property used for mining, whether or not affixed to land, excluding any timber o other material used or applied in the construction or support of any shaft, drive, gallery, terrace, race, dam or other work;"mining right" means a right granted under subsection (1) of section thirteen;"non-mining right" means a mineral processing licence or mineral trading permit granted under this Act;"open cast mining operations" means any working or excavation open to the surface beneath the original surface of the ground for the purpose of mining, but excludes prospecting pits;"ore" means a natural aggregate of one or more minerals which may be mined and sold at a profit or from which some parts may be profitably extracted;"petroleum" has the meaning assigned to it in the Petroleum (Exploration and Production) Act, 2008, but does not include coal;[Act No. 10 of 2008]"person" includes a partnership and co-operative;"precious metal" means gold, platinum, palladium, indium, osmium, rhodium, iridium, ruthenium, selenium and silver, or any other relatively scarce, highly corrosion resistant metal of high economic value;"radioactive mineral" means a mineral which contains by weight at least one twentieth of one percent of uranium or thorium or any combination thereof, including—(a)monazite, sand and other ores containing thorium; and(b)carnotite, pitchblende and other ores containing uranium;"regional certificate" means a forgery resistant document with a format that identifies a shipment of specified minerals as having complied with the requirements of a regional mineral tracking and certification scheme;"regional mining cadastre offices" means mining cadastre offices established in districts throughout the Republic, other than Lusaka, to enable the public lodge applications for mining rights and non-mining rights;"register" means a register established and maintained pursuant to section seventy-nine;"registered office" means an office of a holder for the purpose of delivery of correspondence, service of notices or documents and for the storage of records as provided under this Act;"repealed Act" means the Mines and Minerals Development Act, 2008;[Act No. 7 of 2008]"single licensing system" has the meaning assigned to it in the Business Regulatory Act, 2014;[Act No. 3 of 2014]"small-scale exploration" means exploration over an area covering a minimum of three cadastre units and not exceeding three hundred cadastre units;"small-scale mining" means mining over an area covering a minimum of three cadastre units and not exceeding one hundred and twenty cadastre units;"technical committee" means a technical committee established by the Minister to evaluate bids under section nineteen;"Tribunal" means the Mining Appeals Tribunal established under section ninety-eight;"underground mining operations" means any working beneath the surface of the ground, which is accessed by means of a ramp, adit, raise, shaft or winze, but does not include an open pit mine or quarry;"wildlife sanctuary" has the meaning assigned to it in the Zambia Wildlife Act, 2015; and[Act No. 14 of 2015]"Zambia Environmental Management Agency" means the Zambia Environmental Management Agency established under the Environmental Management Act, 2011.[Act No. 12 of 2011]
(2)A reference in this Act to land subject to a mining right or mineral processing licence means a reference to an area of land in respect of which a mining right or mineral processing licence has been granted and subsists.

3. Ownership of minerals

(1)All rights of ownership in, searching for, mining and disposing of, minerals wheresoever located in the Republic vest in the President on behalf of the Republic.
(2)This section has effect notwithstanding any right, title or interest which a person may possess in or over the soil in, on or under which minerals are found.

4. General principles for mining and minerals development

The following principles shall apply to the mining and development of minerals—
(a)mineral resources are a non-renewable resource and shall be conserved, developed and used prudently, taking into account the needs of the present and future generations;
(b)mineral resources shall be explored and developed in a manner that promotes and contributes to socio-economic development and in accordance with international conventions to which Zambia is a party;
(c)the exploitation of minerals shall ensure safety, health and environmental protection;
(d)wasteful mining practices shall be avoided so as to promote sustainable development and prevent adverse environmental effects;
(e)citizens shall have equitable access to mineral resources and benefit from mineral resources development; and
(f)development of local communities in areas surrounding the mining area based on prioritisation of community needs, health and safety.

Part II – Administration

5. Directors and other officers

(1)The Public Service Commission shall appoint as public officers—
(a)the Director of Mines;
(b)the Director of Mines Safety;
(c)the Director of Geological Survey; and
(d)the Director of Mining Cadastre.
(2)The Directors referred to in subsection (1) shall exercise and perform the powers and functions conferred or imposed upon the Directors by or under this Act or any other written law.
(3)The Director of Mines shall supervise and regulate the proper and effectual development of mine sand conduct of mining operations in accordance with the provisions of this Act.
(4)The Director of Mines Safety shall have responsibility for matters concerning the environment, public health and safety in exploration, mineral processing and mining operations.
(5)The Director of Geological Survey shall—
(a)undertake the geological mapping of Zambia and exploration operations on behalf of the Republic;
(b)advise the Minister on geological matters;
(c)provide data concerning the geology and mineral resources of Zambia, and assist members of the public on information concerning geological matters; and
(d)maintain such laboratory and library and record facilities as may be necessary for the performance of the functions under this Act.
(6)The Director of Mining Cadastre shall be responsible for the administration of mining rights and mineral processing licences.
(7)The Public Service Commission shall appoint such other public officers as may be necessary for the administration of this Act.
(8)The Directors may, by Gazette notice, designate any public officer to be an authorised officer for the purpose of the exercise and performance of all or any of the functions conferred on an authorised officer by the provisions of this Act.
(9)An authorised officer shall be provided with a certificate of appointment, which shall be prima facie evidence of the authorised officer’s designation as such.
(10)An authorised officer shall, on demand by a person affected by the exercise of any power under this Act, produce for inspection the authorised officer’s certificate of appointment.
(11)The Minister may attach the Director of Mines, Director of Mines Safety or Director of Geological Survey or an authorised officer to exploration, mining or mineral processing operations, border posts or mineral product trading centres in order to enforce the provisions of this Act.

6. Mining Licensing Committee

(1)There is established the Mining Licensing Committee which shall—
(a)consider applications for mining rights and non-mining rights and grant, renew or refuse to grant or renew mining rights and non-mining rights;
(b)terminate, suspend or cancel mining rights and non-mining rights;
(c)amend the terms and conditions of mining rights and non-mining rights; and
(d)advise the Minister on matters relating to its functions under this Act.
(2)The Committee shall consist of the following members who shall be appointed by the Minister—
(a)the Director of Mines;
(b)the Director of Geological Survey;
(c)the Director of Mines Safety;
(d)the Director of Mining Cadastre who shall be secretary;
(e)one representative each of the Ministries responsible for—
(i)the environment;
(ii)land;
(iii)finance; and
(iv)labour; and
(f)a representative of—
(i)the Attorney-General;
(ii)the Zambia Development Agency; and
(iii)the Engineering Institution of Zambia.
(3)A person shall not be appointed as a member of the Committee if the person
(a)is an undischarged bankrupt;
(b)has been convicted of an offence under this Act or any other relevant written law;
(c)has been convicted of an offence involving fraud or dishonesty; or
(d)has a mental or physical disability that makes the person incapable of performing the functions of a member.
(4)The Minister shall, where practicable ensure equitable gender representation when appointing the members of the Committee.
(5)The Minister shall appoint the Chairperson of the Committee and the members shall elect the Vice-Chairperson of the Committee from amongst themselves.
(6)The Committee may, in considering an application under this Act, consult any person in the area to which an application for a mining or non-mining right relates who may be affected by the grant, termination, suspension, cancellation or renewal of a mining or nonmining right.
(7)The Minister shall, where the Minister disposes of any matter contrary to the advice of the Committee, furnish the Committee with a statement, in writing, of the Minister’s reasons for doing so.
(8)The provisions of the Schedule apply to the Committee.

7. Honorary inspectors

(1)The Minister may, in consultation with the Directors, by notice in the Gazette, on such terms and conditions as the Minister may specify in the notice, appoint any suitably qualified person as an honorary inspector.
(2)The appointment of an honorary inspector may be—
(a)general, so that the honorary inspector is empowered to act in any part of the Republic, in a mining area or other area specified in the notice of appointment; or
(b)limited, so that the honorary inspector is empowered to act in areas of the honorary inspector’s residence including a mining area as may be specified in the notice of appointment.
(3)Subject to the provisions of this Act and the terms of the notice of appointment, an honorary inspector shall, within the terms of appointment, exercise the functions and perform the duties of an authorised officer.

8. Mining Cadastre Office

(1)There shall be a Mining Cadastre Office which shall—
(a)receive and process applications for mining rights and mineral processing licences;
(b)administer mining rights and mineral processing licences; and
(c)maintain public cadastral maps and cadastre registers.
(2)The Ministry shall establish regional mining cadastre offices which shall receive applications for mining rights and forward the applications for processing by the Mining Cadastre Office.

9. Execution and delegation of powers and functions of Directors and other officers

(1)Where an office referred to in subsection (1) of section five is vacant or the holder of the office is, owing to illness or other cause, unable to exercise or perform the powers and functions of office, the Public Service Commission shall appoint another person to exercise or perform the powers and functions of that office.
(2)The holder of an office referred to in subsection (1) may, by Gazette Notice, and subject to such terms and conditions as may be specified in the Notice, delegate to any public officer the exercise or performance of any of the powers and functions conferred or imposed on the holder of the office by this Act.
(3)The holder of an office referred to in subsection (1) may exercise or perform a power or function despite the delegation of the exercise or performance of the power or function to some other person.

10. Powers of Directors and authorised officers

(1)The Directors or an authorised officer may, at any reasonable time, enter upon a mining area or any premises or working on or under the mining area to—
(a)inspect the area, premises or workings and examine exploration, mining or mineral processing operations or the treatment of minerals at the area, working or premises;
(b)ascertain whether or not the provisions of this Act or the conditions of a mining right or non-mining right are being complied with;
(c)ascertain whether or not any nuisance exists upon the area, land or mine or in the premises or workings;
(d)give directions and take steps to enforce any provision of this Act or to abate or remove any nuisance;
(e)take soil samples or specimens of rocks, ore concentrates, tailings, minerals or any other material from the area, premises or workings for the purpose of examination or assay;
(f)examine books, accounts, vouchers, documents, maps, drilling logs or records of any kind; or
(g)obtain any information necessary for the purposes of this Act.
(2)The Directors or an authorised officer may, at any reasonable time, inspect and make copies of any book, account, voucher, document, map, drill logs or record kept by a holder of a mining right or non-mining right for purposes of this Act.
(3)A holder of a mining right or non-mining right shall provide such reasonable assistance as is required to enable the Directors or an authorised officer to exercise or perform any power or function under this section.
(4)A person who, without reasonable excuse, delays, hinders or obstructs the Directors or an authorised officer in the exercise or performance of any power or function under this section commits an offence and is liable, upon conviction, to a fine not exceeding two hundred thousand penalty units or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years, or to both.

11. Immunity

The Directors or an authorised officer shall not be liable for anything done or omitted to be done in good faith in the exercise or performance, or purported exercise or performance, of any power or function conferred or imposed on the Directors or authorised officers by or under this Act.

Part III – Mining rights and non-mining rights

Division 1 - General

12. Prohibition of exploration, mining or mineral processing without licence or environmental impact assessment

(1)A person shall not explore for minerals or carry on mining operations, mineral processing operations or gold panning except under the authority of a mining right, mineral processing licence or gold panning certificate granted under this Act.
(2)A person shall not undertake exploration, mining or mineral processing activities without obtaining the prior written approval of the environmental impact assessment relating to the exploration, mining or mineral processing operations by the Zambia Environmental Management Agency as provided under section twenty-nine of the Environmental Management Act, 2011.[Act No. 12 of 2011]
(3)A person who contravenes subsection (1) or (2) commits an offence and is liable, upon conviction—
(a)in the case of an individual, a partnership or co-operative, to a fine not exceeding seven hundred thousand penalty units or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding seven years, or to both; or
(b)in the case of a body corporate, to a fine of five million penalty units.

13. Types of rights

(1)The following mining rights may be granted under this Act:
(a)an exploration licence; and
(b)a mining licence.
(2)The following non-mining rights may be granted under this Act—
(a)a mineral processing licence;
(b)a mineral trading permit;
(c)mineral import permit;
(d)mineral export permit; and
(e)gold panning certificate.
(3)A mining right over an area between a minimum of two cadastre units and a maximum of one hundred and twenty cadastre units in extent shall only be granted to the following companies:
(a)citizen-influenced company;
(b)citizen-empowered company; and
(c)citizen-owned company.
(4)A mining right over an area exceeding two cadastre units shall only be granted to a company.

14. Disqualification from holding mining rights

(1)A mining right or non-mining right shall not be granted to any person except in accordance with the provisions of this Act.
(2)A mining right or non-mining right shall not be granted to or held by a company which—
(a)is in liquidation, other than liquidation which forms part of a scheme for the reconstruction of the company or for its amalgamation with another company;
(b)is not incorporated under the Companies Act;[Cap. 388]
(c)has not established a registered office in Zambia; or
(d)has among its directors or shareholders holding more than ten percent of the issued equity of the company, a person who—
(i)is or becomes an undischarged bankrupt under any written law, or enters into an agreement or composition with creditors, or takes advantage of a legal process for the relief of bankrupt or insolvent debtors; or
(ii)has been convicted, within the previous five years, of an offence involving fraud or dishonesty, or of an offence under this Act or any other written law within or outside Zambia, and sentenced to imprisonment without the option of a fine.
(3)A mining right or non-mining right shall not be granted to or held by an individual who—
(a)is under the age of eighteen years;
(b)is or becomes an undischarged bankrupt, having been adjudged or otherwise declared bankrupt under any written law, or enters into any agreement or composition with creditors, or takes advantage of any legal process for the relief of bankrupt or insolvent debtors; or
(c)has been convicted, within the previous five years, of an offence involving fraud or dishonesty, or of an offence under this Act or any other written law within or outside Zambia and sentenced to imprisonment without the option of a fine.
(4)A document or transaction purporting to grant a mining right or a non-mining right to any person not entitled to hold the right under this Act is void.

15. Priority of applications for mining rights

Subject to this Act, where more than one person apply for a mining right over the same area of land, the Committee shall dispose of the applications in the order in which they are received.

16. Mining right for area subject to other rights

(1)An applicant for a mining right over an area subject to another mining right shall apply for consent from the holder of the mining right, which consent shall not be unreasonably withheld.
(2)A holder of a mining right over an area in respect of which an application is made under subsection (1) may, within a period of ninety days, give consent, in writing, to the applicant if—
(a)the minerals or metals applied for are different from those indicated on the holder’s licence;
(b)the geographical position of the minerals or metals applied for is different from the holder’s resource indicated in the approved programme of operations; and
(c)the geographical location of the application for the mining right does not compromise the integrity of the exploration or mining programme of the holder of the existing mining right.
(3)An applicant shall, where a holder of a mining right over an area in respect of which the application is made withholds consent, apply to the Minister, who shall determine the matter taking into account the matters referred to in subsection (2).

17. Acquisition of mining rights by Government

(1)Subject to the other provisions of this Act, the Government may acquire mining rights for Government investment over identified areas.
(2)The identified area referred to in subsection (1) shall be reserved for Government investment and shall not be subject to an application for the acquisition of a mining right by any person.
(3)Mining rights acquired in accordance with sub-section (1) shall be granted to a Government investment company in accordance with this Act or any other relevant written law.

18. Survey of land

(1)An applicant for a mining licence shall submit to the Mining Cadastre Office, at the time of application, the proposed positions of all beacons defining the location and extent of the land under application
(2)A holder of a mining right or mineral processing licence shall, within one hundred and eighty days of the grant of the licence, survey and demarcate the area covered by the licence in the prescribed manner and register a pegging certificate at the Mining Cadastre Office.
(3)A person who contravenes subsection (2) commits an offence and is liable, upon conviction, to a fine not exceeding three hundred thousand penalty units or to imprisonment for a period not exceeding four years, or to both.

19. Bids

(1)Subject to the other provisions of this Act, the Minister shall, by notice in a daily newspaper of general circulation in Zambia, issue invitations for bids for mining rights over identified areas or mineral resources which are not subject to mining rights or non-mining rights.
(2)The notice referred to in subsection (1) shall include—
(a)a description of the areas with map and geographical coordinates for which the bids are to be solicited;
(b)the procedures and rules relating to the submission of the bids; and
(c)the period within which the bids shall be submitted.
(3)The Minister shall establish a technical committee to evaluate bids under this section.
(4)The Minister shall, within fourteen days from the date of the expiry of the period referred to in paragraph (c) of subsection (2), refer the bids for evaluation by the technical committee established under subsection (3).
(5)The technical committee shall consider the following in evaluating the bids:
(a)the bidder’s investment and financial plan;
(b)in the case of a holder of a mining right, whether the holder has been compliant with the provisions of this Act and the terms and conditions of the mining right;
(c)the bid price; and
(d)any other relevant matters for purposes of this Act.
(6)The technical committee shall provide a detailed analysis of all the bids, ranked in accordance with pre-determined parameters, and recommend to the Committee the bidder with the highest score to be granted the relevant mining right in accordance with the provisions of this Act.
(7)The Committee shall, upon receipt of the recommendation by the technical committee, grant a mining right to the recommended bidder in accordance with the provisions of this Act.

20. Preference for Zambian products, contractors and services and employment of citizens

(1)A holder of a mining right or a mineral processing licence shall, in the conduct of mining operations or mineral processing operations and in the purchase, construction, installation and decommissioning of facilities, give preference to the—
(a)materials and products made in Zambia; and
(b)contractors, suppliers and service agencies located in Zambia and owned by citizens or citizen-owned companies.
(2)A holder of a mining right or mineral processing licence shall, in the course of operations—
(a)give preference in employment to citizens with relevant qualifications or skills; and
(b)conduct training programmes for the transfer of technical and managerial skills to Zambians.
(3)A person who contravenes subsection (1) or (2) is liable to pay a fine of five hundred thousand penalty units and an additional fine of twenty thousand penalty units for each day during which the default continues.

Division 2 - Exploration licence

21. Application for exploration licence

(1)An application for an exploration licence shall be made to the Director of Mining Cadastre in the prescribed form upon payment of the prescribed fee.
(2)The area of land over which an application for an exploration licence is made shall be represented by complete and contiguous cadastre units as follows:
(a)for small-scale exploration, a minimum of three cadastre units and not exceeding three hundred cadastre units; and
(b)for large-scale exploration, a minimum of three hundred and one cadastre units and not exceeding fifty-nine thousand eight hundred and eighty cadastre units.
(3)Subject to subsection (4) and the other provisions of this Act, a company or its subsidiaries shall not hold a number of licences whose accumulated total area is more than two hundred and ninety-nine thousand, four hundred cadastre units.
(4)A company that accumulates an exploration area in excess of one hundred and forty-nine thousand, seven hundred cadastre units shall pay additional fees for the excess area as may be prescribed.

22. Consideration of application for exploration licence

(1)The Committee shall, in considering an application made under section twenty-one, take the following into account:
(a)that the applicant has the financial resources and technical ability to conduct the proposed exploration optimally in accordance with the exploration work programme;
(b)that the estimated expenditure is compatible with the proposed exploration work programme, area size and duration of the exploration work programme;
(c)if the land is within a National Park, Community Partnership Park, Game Management Area, bird or wildlife sanctuary, National Forest, Local Forest, Botanical Reserve or private forest or is land to which subsection (1) of section fifty-two applies, the applicant has obtained the necessary written consent of the appropriate authority;
(d)that the proposed programme of exploration operations is adequate and makes proper provision for environmental protection;
(e)that the proposed exploration area is not the same as, and does not overlap in any manner with, an existing mining right or mineral processing licence area; and
(f)if the applicant is a holder, that the applicant has not contravened any condition of the licence or permit or any provision of this Act.
(2)The Committee may cause investigations to be conducted in order to assess whether or not the applicant has fulfilled the criteria in subsection (1).
(3)The Committee shall not grant an exploration licence to an applicant if—
(a)the applicant is disqualified from holding an exploration licence;
(b)the applicant is the holder of another mining right and is in breach of any condition of that mining right or any provision of this Act;
(c)the area of land for which the applicant has made the application, or a part of it, is subject to another mining right and the holder of that mining right has not consented to the exercise of the right in respect of which the application is made;
(d)the area of land for which the application is made covers or includes an area of land for which an application has been earlier made by another person; or
(e)an application is for an exploration licence in respect of an area—
(i)that the applicant relinquished; or
(ii)over which the applicant previously held an exploration licence for ten years.
(4)An applicant is note ligible to apply for an exploration licence in respect of an area over which the applicant previously held an exploration licence for ten years until after a period of one year from the date of the expiry of the previous exploration licence.
(5)The Director of Mining Cadastre shall, where an application is rejected under subsection (3), inform the applicant of the rejection and give the reasons for the rejection in writing.

23. Exploration licence

(1)The Committee shall, within sixty days of receipt of an application under section twenty-one, grant the applicant an exploration licence, in the prescribed form, if the application complies with the provisions of this Act.
(2)An exploration licence confers on the holder exclusive rights to carry on exploration in the exploration area for the minerals specified in the licence and to do all such other acts and things as are necessary for, or incidental to, the carrying on of those operations.

24. Duration of exploration licence

(1)Subject to the other provisions of this Act, an exploration licence shall be valid for an initial period of four years.
(2)An exploration licence may, on its expiry after four years, be renewed for two further periods not exceeding three years each, but the maximum period from initial grant of the licence shall not exceed ten years.
(3)A holder of an exploration licence shall relinquish fifty percent of the exploration area at each renewal.
(4)Notwithstanding subsection (2), an exploration licence for small-scale exploration and gemstones, other than diamonds, is not renewable.

25. Obligations of holder of exploration licence

(1)A holder of an exploration licence shall—
(a)only commence exploration operations if the holder submits to the Mining Cadastre Office
(i)a decision letter in respect of the environmental project brief approved by the Zambia Environmental Management Agency; or
(ii)written consent from the appropriate authority where subsection (1) of section fifty-two applies to the land;
(b)within one hundred and eighty days of the grant of the exploration licence, register a pegging certificate at the Mining Cadastre Office;
(c)give notice to the Director of Mining Cadastre of the discovery of any mineral deposit of possible commercial value within thirty days of the discovery;
(d)expend on exploration operations not less than the amount prescribed or required by the terms and conditions of an exploration licence;
(e)carry on explorations in accordance with the programme of exploration;
(f)backfill or otherwise make safe any excavation made during the course of the exploration, as the Director of Mining Cadastre may specify;
(g)permanently preserve or otherwise make safe any borehole in the manner directed by the Director of Mining Cadastre and surrender to Government, on termination, without compensation, the drill cores, other mineral samples and the boreholes and any water rights in respect of the boreholes;
(h)unless the Director of Mining Cadastre otherwise stipulates, remove, within sixty days of the expiry or revocation of the exploration licence, any camp, temporary buildings or machinery erected or installed and repair or otherwise make good any damage to the surface of the ground occasioned by the removal, in the manner specified by the Director of Mining Cadastre; and
(i)keep and preserve such records as the Director of Mines Safety may determine relating to the protection of the environment.
(2)A holder of an exploration licence shall keep full and accurate records, at the holder’s office, of the exploration operations which shall indicate—
(a)the boreholes drilled;
(b)the strata penetrated, with detailed logs of the strata;
(c)the minerals discovered;
(d)the results of any seismic survey or geo-chemical, geo-physical and remote sensing data analysis;
(e)the result of any analysis or identification of minerals removed from the exploration area;
(f)the geological interpretation of the records maintained under paragraphs (a) to (e);
(g)the number of persons employed;
(h)any other exploration work;
(i)the costs incurred for all exploration activities carried out by the holder under the exploration licence; and
(j)such other matters as may be prescribed.
(3)A holder of an exploration licence shall furnish to the Directors, at least once in every three months, digital and hard copies of the records, as may be prescribed.

26. Restrictions on removal of minerals

(1)Except for the purpose of having the mineral analysed or conducting tests on the mineral, a holder of an exploration licence shall not remove any mineral from the exploration area without the written permission of the Director of Geological Survey and shall, when removing any mineral, comply with such conditions as the Director of Geological Survey may specify in the written permission.
(2)The Minister may, by statutory instrument, determine the quantities of mineral samples to be removed from an exploration area for the purpose of mineral analysis or conducting tests on the mineral.

27. Geological survey, mapping and exploration on behalf of Republic

(1)The Director of Geological Survey or an authorised officer may, for the purpose of carrying on exploration operations on behalf of the Republic, enter upon any land with such number of persons as the Director of Geological Survey or authorised officer may consider necessary, and exercise the rights of a holder of an exploration licence.
(2)The Director of Geological Survey or an authorised officer may, for the purpose of carrying out the geological mapping or exploration on behalf of the Republic—
(a)enter, at any reasonable time, upon any land with such persons, animals, vehicles, appliances, instruments and materials as are necessary for the survey;
(b)break up the surface of any part of any land for the purpose of ascertaining the rocks or minerals within or under the land;
(c)take any samples and specimens of the soil, rocks or minerals found on the land;
(d)fix any post, stone, mark or object to be used in the survey of the land;
(e)dig up any ground for the purpose of fixing any post, stone, mark or object; and
(f)enter into or upon any land through which it may be necessary to pass for the purpose of the survey.
(3)The Director of Geological Survey or authorised officer shall not fix any object, post, stone or mark on any land without the consent of the owner or occupier of the land, which consent shall not be unreasonably withheld.
(4)The owner or occupier of the land referred to in subsection (3) shall, within one month of the request for consent, grant the consent.
(5)Where the owner or occupier of the land to which access is requested under subsection (3) delays or unreasonably withholds to grant consent, the Director of Geological Survey or an authorised officer shall refer the matter to the Committee.
(6)Notice of the intention to exercise any power conferred by this section shall be given in the Gazette and in a daily newspaper of general circulation in the area where the land is situated, at least fourteen days before the exercise of the powers, unless the land is State land alienated by the President in accordance with the Lands Act.[Cap. 184]
(7)The Director of Geological Survey shall ensure that—
(a)as little damage and inconvenience as possible is caused by the exercise of any of the powers conferred by this section; and
(b)all excavations opened are backfilled before abandoning any land.
(8)Nothing in subsection (1) authorises a person to enter upon any land referred to in subsection (1) of section fifty-two without obtaining the consent required to be obtained under that section.

28. Closure of area to priority licensing

(1)Subject to subsection (2), the Minister may, by statutory order, close an area described in the statutory order to priority licensing in respect of all minerals or the minerals specified in the statutory order.
(2)The Minister shall not close an area under subsection (1) that is already subject to a mining right or mineral processing licence.
(3)The Director of Mining Cadastre shall record an area closed to priority licensing in the appropriate register.
(4)An area closed to priority licensing under subsection (1) shall be subject to bidding in accordance with section nineteen.

Division 3 - Mining licence

29. Licensing of mining activities

(1)A person who intends to carry on any artisanal mining, small-scale mining or large-scale mining shall apply for a mining licence under this Part.
(2)Artisanal mining shall only be undertaken by a citizen or a co-operative wholly composed of citizens.
(3)Small-scale mining shall only be undertaken by a citizen-owned, citizen-influenced or citizen-empowered company.
(4)An applicant for artisanal mining or small-scale mining shall not be granted a mining licence in respect of radioactive minerals.

30. Application for mining licence

(1)A holder of an exploration licence may, not later than six months before the expiry of the exploration licence, apply for a mining licence for the mining of minerals within the exploration area.
(2)An application for a mining licence shall be made to the Director of Mining Cadastre in the prescribed manner and form upon payment of the prescribed fee.
(3)The area of land over which an application for a mining licence is lodged shall be represented by complete and contiguous cadastre units as follows:
(a)for artisanal mining, a minimum of one cadastre unit and not exceeding two cadastre units;
(b)for small-scale mining, a minimum of three cadastre units and not exceeding one hundred and twenty cadastre units; and
(c)for large-scale mining, a minimum of one hundred and twenty-one cadastre units and not exceeding seven thousand, four hundred and eighty-five cadastre units.
(4)An application for a mining licence shall not be made for an area in excess of the area of mineralisation and additional areas reasonably required for development of infrastructure relating to the mining licence.

31. Consideration of application for mining licence

(1)The Committee shall, in considering an application under section thirty, take the following into account:
(a)whether there are sufficient deposits or resources of minerals to justify their commercial exploitation;
(b)that the area of land over which the licence is sought is not in excess of the area required to carry out the applicant’s proposed programme for mining operations;
(c)that the proposed programme of mining operations is adequate and compliant with the decision letter in respect of the environmental project brief or environmental impact assessment approved by the Zambia Environmental Management Agency;
(d)where consent is required for the area under any written law, that the applicant has submitted evidence of that consent;
(e)the standards of good mining practice and the applicant’s proposed programme for development, construction and mining operations in order to ensure the efficient and beneficial use of the mineral resources for the area over which the licence is sought;
(f)in respect of large-scale mining
(i)whether the applicant has the financial resources and technical competence and the financing plan is compatible with the programme of mining operations;
(ii)the applicant’s undertaking for the employment and training of citizens and promotion of local business development;
(iii)whether the applicant’s feasibility study report is bankable; and
(iv)the applicant’s capital investment forecast; and
(g)that the applicant is not in breach of any condition of the exploration licence or any provision of this Act.
(2)The Director of Mining Cadastre may cause an investigation to be conducted in order to assess whether the requirements of this section have been met.
(3)The Committee shall, where an application does not comply with the provisions of this Act, reject the application and inform the applicant of the rejection and the reasons for the rejection, in writing.
(4)The Committee shall not grant a mining licence to a person disqualified under section fourteen.

32. Mining licence

(1)Subject to the other provisions of this Act, the Committee shall, within ninety days of the receipt of an application under section thirty, grant the applicant a mining licence, in the prescribed form, if the application meets the requirements of this Act.
(2)There shall be attached to a mining licence as part of the conditions of the licence
(a)the programme of development, construction and mining operations as approved by the Director of Mining Cadastre;
(b)the applicant’s undertaking for the employment and training of citizens;
(c)the applicant’s undertaking for the promotion of local business development;
(d)the applicant’s capital investment forecast; and
(e)the applicant’s undertaking for management of the environment in the mining area.
(3)Subject to the conditions of a mining licence, the mining licence confers on the holder exclusive rights to carry on mining, processing and exploration in the mining area and to do all such other acts and things as are necessary for, or incidental to, the carrying on of those operations.
(4)Without limiting the generality of subsection (1), a holder of a mining licence may—
(a)enter onto the mining area and take all measures on or under the surface for the purpose of the mining operations;
(b)erect the necessary equipment, plant and buildings for the purposes of mining, transporting, dressing or treating the mineral recovered in the course of mining operations;
(c)dispose of any recovered mineral product, and in the case of recovered gemstones, as prescribed by the Minister, by statutory instrument;
(d)explore for any mineral within the mining area; and
(e)stack or dump any mineral or waste products within the licensed area.

33. Deferment of commencement of mining

(1)The holder of a mining licence may apply to the Director of Mining Cadastre for authorisation to defer the commencement of mining on the grounds that—
(a)the holder has identified a mineral deposit within the exploration area which is potentially of commercial significance; and
(b)the mineral deposit cannot be developed immediately due to adverse economic conditions or technological constraints, or both, which are, or may be, of a temporary nature.
(2)An application for deferment of the commencement of mining shall be made in the prescribed manner and form, upon payment of the prescribed fee.
(3)The Director of Mining Cadastre may, within sixty days of receipt of an application for authorisation to defer mining in an exploration area, if the Director of Mining Cadastre determines that commercial development of the deposit is not presently possible for the reasons specified in the application, but may be possible within a period of five years, grant authorisation to defer commencement of mining on such terms and conditions as the Director of Mining Cadastre may determine.
(4)An authorisation to defer the commencement of mining shall be for a period not exceeding five years.
(5)Where the Director of Mining Cadastre, based on the findings of independent studies determines that commercial mineral development of an area subject to an authorisation is possible during the currency of the authorisation, the Director of Mining Cadastre may, by notice to the holder of the mining licence, require the holder to commence mining operations, within ninety days of the notice, in accordance with the mining licence.

34. Duration of mining licence

A mining licence shall be granted for a period not exceeding—
(a)two years, for artisanal mining;
(b)ten years, for small-scale mining; and
(c)twenty-five years, for large-scale mining.

35. Obligations of holder of mining licence

(1)A holder of a mining licence shall—
(a)within one hundred and eighty days of the grant of the mining licence, register a pegging certificate at the mining cadastre office;
(b)develop the mining area, and carry on mining operations, with due diligence and in compliance with the programme of mining operations and the environmental impact assessment;
(c)take all measures on or under the surface to mine the mineral to which the mining licence relates;
(d)for large-scale mining
(i)implement the local business development undertaking attached to the mining licence; and
(ii)employ and train citizens of Zambia in accordance with the proposal for employment and training attached to the licence;
(e)comply with the proposed forecast of capital investment;
(f)demarcate the mining area and keep it demarcated in the prescribed manner;
(g)maintain at the holder’s office—
(i)complete and accurate technical records of the operations in the mining area which should include mine plans and sections, primary and secondary developments, ore resources and reserves, ore recovery and treatment and production costs;
(ii)copies of all maps and geological reports, including interpretations, mineral analysis, aerial photographs, satellite maps, core logs, analyses and test results obtained and compiled by the holder in respect of the mining area;
(iii)accurate and systematic financial records of the operations in the mining area and such other books of account and financial records as may be prescribed; and
(iv)where the holder is engaged in any other activity not connected with the operations under the mining licence, separate books of account from the operations under the mining licence;
(h)permit an authorised officer, at any reasonable time, to inspect the books and records maintained pursuant to paragraph (b) and deliver to the Director of Mines, Director of Geological Survey, Director of Mines Safety or Director of Mining Cadastre without charge, copies of any part of the books and records as may be required;
(i)keep and preserve records and submit reports on mining operations and the protection of the environment as may be prescribed;
(j)submit to the Director of Mining Cadastre such reports, records and other information as the Director of Mining Cadastre may require concerning the conduct of the operations in the mining area;
(k)submit to the Director of Mining Cadastre, within three months of the end of each financial year—
(i)a copy of the annual audited financial statements showing the profit or loss for the year and the state of the financial affairs of the licensee at the end of that financial year; and
(ii)for large-scale mining, a return showing compliance with the obligations specified in paragraph (d); and
(l)maintain security and ensure that there are no illegal miners at the licensee’s tenements.
(2)The holder of a mining licence shall submit to the Directors as may be prescribed—
(a)annually, mine plans and sections, primary and secondary developments, ore recovery and treatment and production costs; and
(b)every two years, ore resources and reserves statements.

36. Suspension of production or closure of mine by Director of Mines Safety or Director of Mines

(1)Subject to the other provisions of this Act, the Director of Mines Safety or Director of Mines may direct a holder of a mining right or mineral processing licence to suspend or curtail production or close the mine or a section of the mine for any of the following reasons:
(a)contravention of a condition of the mining right or mineral processing licence that presents danger of imminent harm to persons within the exploration, mining or mineral processing area;
(b)an unsafe working environment;
(c)uncontrollable pollution of the area resulting from the mining operations;
(d)force majeure; or
(e)a labour dispute that disrupts the mining or mineral processing operations.
(2)Where, in the course of an inspection, an authorised officer discovers a contravention of conditions of a mining licence or the existence of any of the circumstances set out in subsection (1), the authorised officer may order the suspension or curtailment of production or closure of the mine or a section of the mine.
(3)The Director of Mines Safety or Director of Mines shall, before exercising the powers conferred by subsection (1), give the holder of a mining licence a period within which the holder of the mining licence shall take remedial measures.
(4)The Director of Mines Safety or Director of Mines shall, if the holder of a mining licence fails to take remedial measures within the period specified under subsection (3), extend the suspension or curtailment of production or closure of the mine or a section of the mine for such further period as the Director of Mines Safety or Director of Mines may determine.

37. Suspension of production by holder of mining or mineral processing licence

(1)Subject to the other provisions of this section, a holder of a mining licence or mineral processing licence may suspend or curtail production of a mine for any of the following reasons:
(a)the maintenance, installation or de-commissioning of equipment;
(b)an unsafe working environment;
(c)uncontrolled pollution of the area resulting from the mining operations;
(d)force majeure; or
(e)a labour dispute that disrupts the mining operations.
(2)A holder of a mining licence or mineral processing licence who suspends or curtails production of a mine shall give notice and reasons for the suspension or curtailment of production to the Director of Mines
(a)within twenty-four hours of the suspension of production;
(b)at least ninety days before the suspension or curtailment of production where the holder, without abandoning the mining licence or mineral processing licence for reasons other than those specified in paragraphs (a) to (e) of subsection (1), proposes to suspend production; and
(c)at least thirty days before the curtailment of production where the holder proposes to curtail the production.
(3)The Director of Mines shall, where the Director of Mines receives notice under subsection (1) or becomes aware of the suspension or curtailment of the production of a mine
(a)cause the matter to be investigated;
(b)approve the suspension or curtailment of production on such terms and conditions as the Director of Mines may determine; or
(c)direct the holder of the mining licence or mineral processing licence to resume full production within such period as the Director of Mines may specify.

Division 4 — Mineral processing licence

38. Application for mineral processing licence

(1)An application for a mineral processing licence shall be made to the Director of Mining Cadastre in the prescribed manner and form upon payment of the prescribed fee.
(2)The area of land over which the mineral processing licence is sought shall—
(a)be represented by complete and contiguous cadastre units; and
(b)not exceed seven thousand, four hundred and eighty-five cadastre units.
(3)The holder of a mining licence for large-scale mining or small-scale mining may construct and operate a mineral processing plant within the licence area without a mineral processing licence.

39. Consideration of application for mineral processing licence

(1)The Committee shall, in considering an application made under section thirty-eight, take the following matters into account:
(a)that the applicant has the financial resources and technical competence and the financing plan is compatible with the programme of mineral processing operations;
(b)that the applicant has title to the land over which the application is made or written consent from the surface right holder or mining right holder;
(c)that the proposed programme of mineral processing operations is adequate and makes proper provision for environmental protection; and
(d)that the applicant has not contravened any provision of this Act or any other relevant written law.
(2)The Director of Mining Cadastre may cause investigations to be conducted in order to assess whether the applicant has met the criteria in subsection (1).
(3)The Committee shall reject an application for a mineral processing licence if—
(a)the applicant does not meet the requirements of this Act;
(b)the applicant is disqualified from holding a mineral processing licence under section fourteen; or
(c)the applicant is a holder of another mineral processing licence and is in breach of a condition of that licence or any provision of this Act.
(4)The Director of Mining Cadastre shall, where an application is rejected under subsection (3), inform the applicant of the rejection and the reasons for the rejection, in writing.

40. Mineral processing licence

(1)The Committee shall, within sixty days of receipt of an application under section thirty-eight, grant to the applicant a mineral processing licence, in the prescribed form, if the application complies with the provisions of this Act.
(2)A mineral processing licence confers on the holder of the licence exclusive rights to carry on mineral processing in the mineral processing area of the minerals specified in the licence and to do all such other acts and things as are necessary for, or reasonably incidental to, the carrying on of those operations.
(3)There shall be attached to a mineral processing licence conditions of the licence which shall include—
(a)a programme of mineral processing operations as approved by the Director of Mining Cadastre, which shall form part of the conditions of the licence; and
(b)the date for the commencement of operations under the licence, which shall not exceed three years from the date of grant, required by the holder of the licence to make any necessary preparation for mineral processing operations.
(4)Subject to the other provisions of this Act, a mineral processing licence is valid for a period of twenty-five years and may be renewed for a similar period.

41. Obligations of holder of mineral processing licence

A holder of a mineral processing licence shall—
(a)commence mineral processing operations if the holder of the mineral processing licence submits to the Mining Cadastre Office a decision letter in respect of the environmental project brief or environmental impact assessment approved by the Zambia Environmental Management Agency;
(b)carry on the mineral processing operations in accordance with the approved programme of mineral processing operations; and
(c)submit reports to the Directors on—
(i)sources of ore, concentrates, tailings, slimes or any other mineral substances fed to the plant;
(ii)quantities and grade of feed to the plant;
(iii)compliance with safety and environmental standards;
(iv)labour and production returns; and
(v)any other records, reports and other information as the Director of Mines, Director of Mining Cadastre, Director of Geological Survey or Director of Mines Safety may require concerning the operations of the mineral processing operations.

Division 5— Gold panning certificate

42. Application for and grant of gold panning certificate

(1)A citizen or a cooperative consisting only of citizens may apply to the Director of Mines for a gold panning certificate in the prescribed manner and form upon payment of the prescribed fee.
(2)The Director of Mines shall, if the applicant does not meet the requirements of this Act—
(a)reject the application for a gold panning certificate; and
(b)inform the applicant of the rejection, in writing, and the reasons for the rejection.
(3)The Director of Mines shall, within thirty days of receipt of an application under this section, grant to the applicant a gold panning certificate in a prescribed form, if the application meets the requirements of this Act.
(4)A gold panning certificate confers upon the holder exclusive rights to pan for gold and shall be issued only over areas specified by geographical coordinates along water courses and bodies.
(5)A gold panning certificate shall not be issued in respect of an area over which there is a subsisting mining right or mineral processing licence.
(6)A gold panning certificate shall be valid for a period of two years and is renewable for a further period of two years.

43. Obligations of holder of gold panning certificate

(1)A holder of a gold panning certificate shall—
(a)maintain at the holder’s office accurate and separate production and sales registers;
(b)keep daily records of production and sales, indicating the names of buyers, their permit numbers and the amount and value of gold sold;
(c)submit to the Director of Mines, on or before the fifteenth day of each month, a true and correct copy in duplicate of all the entries made in the production and sales in the preceding month;
(d)make the records and minerals available, within normal working hours, for inspection by an authorised officer;
(e)pay mineral royalty in accordance with this Act; and
(f)maintain the panning area in accordance with the Environmental Management Act, 2011.[Act No. 12 of 2011]
(2)A holder of a gold panning certificate shall not undertake any excavations.

Division 6 — Mineral trading permit

44. Prohibition of trading in minerals without permit

(1)Subject to subsection (2), a person shall not trade in minerals without a mineral trading permit issued under this Part.
(2)Subsection (1) does not apply to a holder of a mining licence.

45. Application for mineral trading permit

(1)A citizen, a citizen-influenced company, a citizen-empowered company or a citizen-owned company may apply for a mineral trading permit to the Director of Mines in the prescribed manner and form upon payment of the prescribed fee.
(2)The Director of Mines shall, within thirty days of receipt of an application under this section grant a mineral trading permit to the applicant, in a prescribed form, if the applicant meets the requirements of this Act.
(3)A mineral trading permit confers upon the holder of the permit the exclusive rights to trade in minerals.
(4)A mineral trading permit shall be valid for a period of three years and is renewable.

46. Obligations of holder of mineral trading permit

A holder of a mineral trading permit shall—
(a)maintain at the holder’s office accurate and separate mineral trading registers for the transactions for each mineral;
(b)keep daily records of buying, selling or processing, indicating